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Lovelace Nebulizer

The In-Tox Products (I.T.P.) Lovelace Nebulizer can be used as an aerosol source in a variety of toxicology testing and environmental research purposes.  This nebulizer is known for its widespread laboratory uses for aerosolizing liquid solutions and suspensions.  The I.T.P. Lovelace Nebulizer was patterned after that described by Mercer et.al. (AIHAJ 29:66-78 1968) The Lovelace Nebulizer is a compressed air operated nebulizer that produces a high concentration of aerosolized droplets with a minimum flow of air.  The output of this nebulizer is sufficient enough to permit operation of laboratory  aerosol experiments and nose-only inhalation exposure chambers at concentrations useful for toxicology studies. The outer nebulizer housing provides a baffle chamber and a reservoir that holds liquid to be nebulized in the lower end.  A jet assembly produces the air blast that atomizes the liquid drawn from the reservoir.  Primary and secondary baffles control the size of the droplets produced by the nebulizer.  An outlet tube in the top of the nebulizer provides an outlet from the atomized droplets. 

 

High Output Nebulizer

The High Output Nebulizer is designed to fulfill the need for an aerosol source operating with several cubic feet per minute of compressed air.  This nebulizer is most often used in conjunction with large, whole-body inhalation exposure chambers.  The High Output Nebulizer is ideal for generating test aerosols to characterize high volume sampling systems.   

Fluidbed Generator

The Fluidbed Generator is helpful in producing aerosols from dry powder in usable concentrations without having a considerable degree of particle agglomeration.

Powder Generator

Powder Generator

The Powder Generator is a device used to aerosolize dry powder test particles.  The user will usually incorporate a compressed air (gas) or high velocity air (gas) stream to break up and disperse finely milled powders..

Slit Jet Generator

A steady flow of liquid is pumped, via a peristoltic pump, through an adjustable discharge rod and over a second rod which discharges compressed air through a small jet.  As the liquid flows over the air jet it is nebulized, the aerosolized agent then exits via the top of the nebulizer.  The liquid which fails to nebulize falls to the bottom of the nebulizer and is recovered and can be sent to the supply reservoir where it can be reused. 
The liquid dispensing rod can be adjusted to maximize nebulization.  Input air pressure is normally maintained between 25 and 30 psi but can be increased at user’s discretion.  Higher pressures will result in increased nebulization but will at the same time increase droplet diameter.   As the pressure is adjusted the positioning of the liquid dispensing tube must also be adjusted.

Virtual Impactor

Conventional cascade impactors have been used extensively for fractionating airborne particles according to their aerodynamic sizes, enabling the size distribution to be determined by analyzing the collected particles.  This technique has sometimes created problems, including stage overloading and particle re-entrainment.

The Virtual Impactor does not collect particles, but merely redirects them into two different air streams according to the cutoff characteristics.  The same principle of inertial separation is used, but the impaction plate is replaced by a region of relatively stagnant air contained in the cavity of a receiving probe.  The fine  particles follow the streamlines of the major air flow, while the coarse particles pass into the forward minor flow region.  Both particle size groups can, subsequently, be ducted for any desired methods of analysis or collection.  This instrument is generally free from particle bounce and re-entrainment  that often occurs in other size separating samplers.

 

Cyclone

The In-Tox Products Cyclone Train is used to determine the particle-size distribution in process streams and to bypass the limitation of Impactors.   Cyclone Samplers are advantageous for collecting large samples and in sampling aerosols of high particulate concentration.  Cyclones are available in Brass or Stainless Steel and available with a Regular or Elongated Cup.

 

Impinger

In-Tox Products is proud to introduce the Impinger.  The Impinger is an instrument used to collect aerosol particles.  Aerosol particles are sampled at a known, constant flow rate into a known volume of liquid.  Solid particles are counted to determine aerosol concentration.  Concentration of liquid or dissolved particles can be determined by chemical analysis. 

Exposure Chambers

Exposure Chambers

In-Tox Products manufactures a well known Cylindrical Inhalation Chamber used in laboratories around the world. The Chamber is used for the delivery of aerosols to laboratory animals under controlled conditions to assess the toxicity of aerosols or vapors.  The chambers are available in several port sizes: 6, 12, 24, 36, 48, and 72 Port Chambers.  The chamber is mounted on a carousel base which can be rotated for easy loading and unloading of test animals.  The aerosol is delivered through a straight tube in the center of the chamber, therefore creating an efficient aerosol delivery. 

Inhalation Chambers manufactured by I.T.P. are recognized for their ability to deliver the aerosol directly to the respiratory tract and for delivering a precise amount of aerosol to the lung.  The chambers are designed so they can be used for biological or toxicology studies. 

In-Tox Products' Chambers are completely self contained and sealed against leakage.  They have been used outside of a bio-safety enclosures, however, I.T.P. recommends using a bio-safety enclosure when using toxic materials.

Small Animal Restraints

The Small Animal Restraints hold the rodents in Lexan restraint tubes that feature precision machined Positive Flow By nose pieces.  When placed in the chamber ports, the nose pieces connect with an o-ring seal to the inlet plenum of the chamber body.  A second o-ring seals the nose pieces to the exhaust plenum of the chamber.  Each nose piece has a series of exhaust jets strategically located behind the nose of the rodent.  While in operation, each rodent receives a fresh, continuous stream of the aerosolized test article.  The aerosol stream is drawn past the animal’s nose and into the exhaust jets where it is finally directed into the exhaust plenum of the exposure chamber.  This design completely eliminates the possibility of re-breathing by the rodents.  With the In-Tox Products Small Animal Exposure System there is no possibility that the rodents can breathe any test article exhaled by a rodent in an adjacent port.  

Exposure Controls

The Exposure System Control Cabinet controls ten separate functions.  Air and vacuum controls allow the user to balance the air flowing into the exposure chamber so as to maintain a net negative pressure in the chamber.  The air operated controls are:  master air, nebulizer, diluter, and by pass.  Vacuum operated functions are: Master vacuum, impactor, filter #1, filter #2, and chamber pressure.  With the exception of the master air and master vacuum each of the above controls are associated with a flow meter so that precise flow can be determined.  In addition to the previously mentioned functions, there is also a chamber pressure gauge which will alert users to changes in chamber pressure.  Pressure gauges also monitor impactor, filter #1 and filter #2 functions to easily determine if a restriction has occurred during the sampling process.